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撰写医学科技英语文章常见的错误分析
科技文章是以储藏和传播科技知识为目的,以专业科技工作者为对象,这就决定了它在语言运用上的要求是准确、简明和规范。这一点无论是汉语,英语还是其他语种都是相通的。现在医务工作者以英文投稿的越来越多,有的投向国外,有的投在国内的英文版期刊上。但是,由于英语不是我们的母语,与汉语有着很大的差别,使得许多医务人员在撰写英文论文中出现这样或那样的问题,不仅影响了文章的准确性,也影响了学术质量。下面,医刊汇编译就医学科技英语文章写作中常见的一些错误进行分析。

  一、口语化的句子用得太多,使文章表达不精炼。例如:“The specimens were randiographed. No bony abnormalities and degenerative changes were noticed.”,从字面上和文法上看虽然没有错误,但用在科技论文中就显得结构松散,不紧凑,太口语化,与科技文章要求语言简练、严谨不符。在不损害原意的前提下,应尽量压缩文字,可改为:The radiographed specimens showed no bony abnormalities or degenerative changes.

  二、该用动词的地方没用动词,造成该强调的地方没得到强调,显得句子苍白无力。例如:“Most of the patients were seriously injured and often complicated with varied degree of hemorrhagic shock. So the primary treatment should be immediated correction of hypovolemia and improved microcirculation.”中用名词结构,显得语气太轻,不能把重点突出来,应当用动词不定式结构。另外,the primary treatment和improved microcirculation不是对等的关系,这里犯了逻辑语法错误,可改为:Most of the patients were seriously injured and often complicated with varied degree of hemorrhagic shock. So the primary treatment is to correct hypovolemia and improve microcircula immediately.

  三、汉英直译造成文不达意。例如:“The aim in reconstructing major oral and maxillofacial defects is to obtain effective restoration of function and appearance.”中的reconstruct是及物动词,它的宾语是defects。汉语说“重建……缺损”不会有歧义,但直译成英语就出现问题了。可改为:The aim in repairing major oral and maxillofacial defects is to obtain effective restoration of function and appearance.

  四、错用委婉语气。有的作者喜欢用委婉语气“may(might)”满篇都是,用得太滥,不仅起不到委婉语气的作用,反而造成意思表达不严谨。例如:“The rupture of the posterior urethral complicated with penetrating rectal injury is uncommon, its emergency management may be challenging.”是陈述肯定的事实,没有必要用委婉的语气,或不肯定的语气。科技英语写作中比较忌讳使用“大概、可能、也许”这类不确定的词汇,可以改为:The rupture of the posterior urethral complicated with penetrating rectal injury is not common, but its emergency management is challenging.

  五、错用省略句。英语中的省略现象比较普遍,使得不是以英语作为母语的人难以掌握,常将一些不符合语法规则的错误和一些短语当作省略句,导致许多语法及修辞上的错误。例如:“The result being that the enzyme lost its activity.”是一个分词独立结构,不是句子。分词独立结构只能在句子中担任一个成分,不能作为独立句子使用。句子“that the enzyme lost its activity”是一个从句,从句也只能担任句子中一个成分,不能作独立句子使用。可改为:The result is that the enzyme lost its activity。

  六、无意义的结构用得太多,造成句子累赘。例如,有的作者喜欢用“It can be seen that…”、“It is clear that…”、“It can be stated that…”、“It is well known that…”等类似结构,实际这些结构多数情况用得不当,完全可以去掉。
 
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